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2/26/19

My stats suggest that this blog has picked up half a person; as I have surmised, perhaps a scholar! The total number of unique visits per day on this page, divided by the number of days at any given time, has gone up from 3 to 3.5.

So since we may have half a scholar visiting us--no offense intended--and since I recently discovered a new "Ethan Spike" sketch by Mathew Franklin Whittier, from the Aug. 6, 1853 Portland (Maine) "Transcript," I thought I'd interpret it as best I can. Even after a decade of immersing myself in Mathew's works, and his 19th-century life, I still don't catch all the period references. But I do catch a lot more of them, now, than I used to.

First of all, "Ethan Spike" is the one historically acknowledged production of Mathew Franklin Whittier. As I've mentioned recently, that's because someone exposed him in 1857. It could have been a girl he was dating briefly at the time (I have evidence suggesting it); it could have inadvertently been William Lloyd Garrison, who published his name in a short list in the "Liberator," as one of the expected attendees from Maine for an anti-slavery, "disunionist" meeting Garrison was advertising. Or, it could have been famous psychic Andrew Jackson Davis, who described their meeting and tied Mathew to "Ethan Spike"--except that Jackson appears to have published that account in 1868. If he published it in 1857, I haven't found that instance. I suspect he may have, however, because Mathew humorously describes himself much as Jackson described him, in another piece signed "Old Casual."

In any case, we have this series as our baseline. When I am proposing any new piece, or series, for Mathew's pen, I can compare it to "Ethan Spike." As I've mentioned, I have conveniently digitized over 1,500 of Mathew's published works, and all of that is searchable. So where a word, mispelling or phrase appears in one of these pieces, I can cross-check it with "Spike."

Now, I've mentioned before, that the minute I laid eyes on four or five samples of this series, when I first obtained Mathew's biography, I felt that he embedded a great deal of secret meaning in them, including, but not limited to, autobiography. Ethan is Mathew's opposite--but he is also, in some strange way, Mathew, himself. What's happening in Mathew's life shows up in Ethan Spike's letters--but experienced and reacted to in-character, as Spike. And yet, this may, at times, be Mathew's own "shadow," in the Jungian sense. The misspellings are often malapropisms, and Mathew was doing this long before his friend and colleague, B.P. Shillaber, came on the scene with "Mrs. Partington."

Shillaber said, of "Ethan Spike":

But, speaking of 'Ethan Spike,'" he continued, “he was a genius. Not in the same line as that of his illustrious brother, John G. Whittier, but in his own he was certainly out of the ordinary. He was a genuine humorist, and he founded a school of comic literature which brought out many imitators. In short, he was original, unique and of a high grade in his peculiar line.

"Founded a school of literature?" Mathew's own long-time editor, Edward Elwell of the "Transcript," in a prepared talk about the prominent literary figures in this genre, didn't even mention Mathew. Instead, he praised James Russell Lowell. But Lowell began his "Biglow Papers" in imitation of Ethan Spike (which I can prove, but I want to stay on-topic, here). What about Seba Smith? Mathew was writing a similar character, "Joe Strickland," for the "New-England Galaxy" as early as July, 1827. This is 2-1/2 years before Seba Smith launched his "Major Jack Downing." In July of 1827, Mathew had just turned 15 years old. Here's the earliest letter I was able to find, though it references a still-earlier one:

JOE STRICKLAND AGAIN.
    nue lundun, guely 12, 1000800 & 27.

deer unkel ben, i ges i thinck yue didint expect tu haive unother lutture agin soe sune, kaise i rit tue yeu in gune, but deer unkel i must tel yeu how i awl waise finds whair the munny laize, yeu noe mi kuzzne ant nabby mahew went done to nue Lundun tu larne hoe to maik blew lites and kitch whailes and kaize her site was pure she tuke her littel phillosophores stup tu like thru and whene she luked intu the warter arter the whailes shee see a chist chuck ful of dollares gest sich as arnold has got in his whele that goes with purpetul moshun--soe shee didint say anny thin to anny boddy but she cum rite strait doun tu nue yorke tu tel me, kaize shee nue i was the boye to dig for munny, soe nowe tu let yeu noe the hole truth (which I hopes yeu wil not tel anny boody else til arter i git the munny for I am tarnation frade these nue lundun foulks wil git it awae from me so I hope yue wil kum rite doun with square pettybones big kart to karry it hom as fast as i digs it--

J.P. guvenner Davy Macklintun ma maik az manny lors about lotras az he pleezes if i gits the chist fule of furdanands.

   yor lovin neffew til deth,

     JOE STRICKLAND.

In this early stage, Mathew exaggerated ignorant speech and spelling to a ludicrous extent--so much so, that it's difficult to read (though well worth the effort, especially once he fine-tunes his method in subsequent letters). He occasionally returned to this style, but for the most part he backed off it somewhat in later years. Still, there are many cross-correspondences between this and Mathew's later work as "Ethan Spike." But there were at least three series of this sort besides "Strickland" and "Spike." Mathew wrote "Enoch Timbertoes" for the New York "Constellation" in 1831; and then "Joshua Greening" for the New York "Yankee Doodle" in 1847. Later, he wrote "Jedediah Simpkins" for the Boston "Weekly Museum," as well as a slew of one-offs, including a book ghost-written (as it appears) for his editor, Asa Greene, in 1833, about "Dr. Dodimus Duckworth." (If you compare the style of "Duckworth" with the others I've listed, here, you'll immediately see the resemblance.)

I can prove that Mathew and Shillaber were friends--I've mentioned, recently, that Mathew wrote the faux biography of Mrs. Partington for Shillaber--so presumably, Mathew had shared his own personal history with him. Shillaber had inside knowledge that few others were privy to, and he must have known that Mathew actually did, in fact, found this comic school--at least in America, if not in Europe. And for what it is worth, Shillaber was not the only editor to call "Ethan Spike" a "genius."

Now, it annoys me whenever someone gets into a debate with me, and starts chopping up my paragraphs, responding to them indiviually. My gut feeling about that is, either you can organize your thoughts and write a damned essay, or you can't. If you can't, concede defeat now, and save us the trouble. My real annoyance with this method is that it's lazy. It indicates someone who doesn't respect me enough to take the time to really formulate an answer. He or she only respects me enough to take a few pot-shots, and move on with their day.

But here, I'm going to resort to that approach because "Ethan Spike" has to be analyzed in small doses. So here goes. Again, I'm going to miss some references, especially when it comes to 19th-century history. FYI, I have corrected two or three obvious typos and printer's omissions, which were particularly bad in this piece.

Written for the Transcript.
LETTER FROM ETHAN SPIKE.

Hornby, July 28, 1853.

Squire Gould an Squire Elwell, Gents.:

Deer Sur: Again arter a lapse of intervales, I take my pen in hand an am sot daown to renew thro' the sarculatin' megeaum of the Transcript--(my chosen orgin) communion with my numerous friends and the public generally.

Gould and Elwell were, of course, the publishers of the Portland "Transcript." The reason I pause here, is that Mathew, as "Ethan Spike," is apologizing for not having written in awhile. When he does this, it is code for Mathew having been either out of town, or having been tied up with something. In this case, it appears from this and other clues that he was involved in local politics, or some sort of civic service; which, perhaps, was unsuccessful. In other instances I was able to identify the precise circumstances, but I have too few clues to go on in this case. Mathew portrays the "Down East," New England accent; but he also has certain favorite mispellings. Note that both "Joe Strickland" and "Ethan Spike" begin their greetings with "Deer." The word "arter" for "after" is another classic "Mathewsian" mispelling. Other writers also used some of these misspellings, like "nater" or "natur" for "nature," but only when they were flagrantly imitating Mathew did they use them in concert. There were flagrant imitations through the years, as Shillaber has indicated, but we won't go into that sidetrack, now.

Say to them friends an' to that ere public, that ef there has bin a wide gap in that ere sweet communion, it haint bin cos I liked 'em wus, but orfis more. Day in and day aout, week arter week an' month arter month has all the energies of my nater bin worked like a Taxas nigger to bring about this grand desideratum of eventooalities.--Ef St Paul fit with wild beasts at Effingham, so have I fit agin wild-cats, mormons, an' federalists in Hornby. Under the broad cannerpy of a merridiun sun; at the airlyest blush of Orroary to the goin' daown of the same, and even to the burnin' of mid-night virgils--workin', writin', swearin', lyin'--an' all for an' orfis that I didnt git? 'O tempus macabeesus, pollywogus Jerrycho!' Sich is fame! Why ef I'd bin an oneddicated, iligiterate aberlishun inemy of aour blessed perladiums, I could'nt apparently been treated wus.

Mathew had an actual public, but in-character as "Ethan Spike," he fondly imagines he has his own public. "Orfis" is another classic term--elsewhere, Mathew speaks of "orfis-seekin,'" where the clear implication is "orifice-seeking." Which is to say, Mathew would mischievously play with off-color references. "Hornby" is the fictional town in the county of Oxford, Maine in which "Spike" resides. Originally, Mathew seems to have intended to people an entire town with characters, rather like the "Simpsons." Here, "Spike" speaks of the "burnin' of mid-night virgils"; so Mathew, also, must have been up writing late at night, for whatever cause he was involved in.

Mathew knows Latin, while "Spike" imagines he knows Latin. Mathew actually is a highly self-educated abolitionist, while "Spike" imagines they are ignorant, and himself educated--except that his education is a superficial show. He tosses off big words, while butchering their spelling. Mathew frequently uses variations on the word "Palladium," which in classical Greece (as I read it), was the statue of Athena, or Pallas, which once guarded the city of Troy. Symbolically, Pallas, the goddess of wisdom, guards the mind. It is no coincidence that, in "The Raven," the Raven alights on top of the "bust of Pallas," which was placed above the poet's chamber door. Mathew used this symbolism deliberately in both "The Raven" and in "Ethan Spike." Here, "Spike" imagines he is defending the Palladiums of society, and that the "aberlishunists" are attacking them--when actually, it is quite the reverse. The abolitionists are defending the principles of Reason in society, while ignorant men like "Spike" are defending their own selfish interests, rationalizing that they are high princples. This, in short, may look like mere slapstick humor, but it is deep philosophy and social commentary, hiding as slapstick humor. This is why Mathew got exasperated with the Boston literati for not taking him seriously as a colleague, in the 1860's and 70's. He finally taught them a lesson with the humorous sketch he handed Samuel Clemens to read for his brother's 70th birthday, in 1877--but that's another story. I'll just point out one clue (I don't prove a theory with one clue, so don't think I'm doing so, here.) Do you see the word "oneddicated," in the paragraph, above? That's one of Mathew's trademarks, as he represents New England dialect, to use "on" in place of the prefix "un." Now, Samuel Clemens' story, which got him in so much hot water when he read it at John Greenleaf Whittier's birthday party, has evidentally been revised by him to reflect California idioms and expressions. Most of them are phrases I've never seen Mathew use. But when Clemens personalized this piece for his own experience on the West Coast, he overlooked one "Mathewsian" element:

There ain't nothing onreasonable 'bout me; I don't mind a passel of guests a-treadin' on my tail three or four times, but when it comes to standing on it it's different, 'and if the court knows herself,' I says, 'you'll take whiskey straight or you'll go dry.

Mathew never used these other expressions--but he used "onreasonable" in three "Ethan Spike" sketches, and variations where this prefix is replaced, probably dozens of times (it would be awkward to search for all of them). Besides, think about it--wouldn't a story set in the back country of New England have made more sense for a gentle (or not-so-gentle) parody of the Boston literati, where three of them are wandering around and come upon a cabin, than one set in California? It's implausible that anybody would take three men for Emerson, Longfellow and Holmes in California. It actually ruins the joke, if you get right down to it. This story must have originally been set in New England, but Clemens realized that unless he re-worked it for California, nobody would believe it was his, as that's where he had been living and writing. So he had to personalize it.

But, I digress, despite myself. "Spike" continues:

But I have larnt a lesson. Ah, ef I'd studied my bible half as well as I did the Argus, I should'nt hav been tuk in as I hav. Since I've gin up all hope, perlitikally, I've bin readin' the scripters in coarse, an' find a good deal of good advice in it. To wit, viz: that ere passidge which warns us not to trust in princes' feathers. Ef I'd only known it a few months ago, it would have saved a deal of wear and tear--to say nothin' of better than nine dollars that I'm aout of pocket. I shan't lay anything up agin General Pearce, cos I think he's bin bamboozled, an' bin kept from knowin' my desarts as he orter. But he's mist it most orful. In leavin' me aout he's deprived the country of a faithful sarvant, and hisself of abaout the all-firedest cheese that was ever got up in Oxford caounty. It was made in a half bushel hoop, an' was nearly all new milk, and had a tansy border all raound it, and ever so many stars encarclin' aour state motter, "Ipsy Dicksey"*--all worked aout in green sage. That ere cheese was to have bin gin to the President as a sort of penny-token of my admiration an' distinguished consideration. But naow--afore he should have a bit on't, I see him in--fellerdelfy fust! Chop me up for sarsengers, ef I would'nt. I don't know what I shall do with the cheese--whether I shall keep it for the kittle-show, or send it on to the kristal fare at New York.

In the 19th century, good jobs were handed out by the new Administration as favors, in the shape of "offices." Mathew, himself, finally had to take one after he was "outed" as "Ethan Spike" (and as a Garrison supporter), because he was so thoroughly blacklisted. "General Pearce," of course, is the newly-elected President. "Spike" is sore because he hasn't been given an office, despite the cheese that he had prepared as a thank-you. There may be some symbolism to the "cheese" (as I am feeling at present), but I don't know what it would refer to. "Ipsy Dicksey," the supposed state motto, is "ipse dixit," which by the dictionary is "a dogmatic and unproven statement." I don't understand the reference to seeing him in "fellerdelfy fust," or Philadelphia. I don't know precisely what a "kittle show" is (a county fair, perhaps), but the "kristal fare at New York" is the Worlds Fair, patterned after the Crystal Palace in London.

I'm abaout discouraged, nothing seems to go right with me. I jined that kuba concern, what did I get by that? Why, I got a place in a Spanish dungen wher I was nearly eaten alive by fleas! When the general government offered a reward for niggers, an' arter a deal of truble I got one, did I git the reward? No, the ongrateful varmint gin me the slip. An' naow arter eenjest spilin myself in perlitical sarvice, where am I? Is my nose? is the nose of any of the Spike family whatsoever or whomsoever in the public crib? No, no! Instead of reapin the reward of my public sarvices I'm reapin' Seth Peabody's rye at fore-an'-six a day, an' all the loaves an' fishes I've seen is the rye an 'ingun, an' pollock that Seth's hired gal brings aout at 11 o'clock. Here's a wretched comminterry upon all subloonary affairs, espeshally upon ongrateful republicks. When I looks at these things--when I see modest merit overlooked and talents such as mine a wastin' themselves in a rye-field, at fore-an-six a day, I trembles for the perpitooity of aour free instertooshuns. I'm nyther a profit, nor a son of a profit, nyther dus it require a spirit of profysy to see that them interstooshuns is standin on slippery places, an that aour holt upon the great perladyum of hewman rites is'nt much more sartin' than the holt of a greased pig's tail! When peeple see niggers in aour rale kars, an' even in aour meetinhousen, and a general subvarsion of all the great principles fit for in the Mexican an Maderwasky wars--they'll perhaps begin to git their eyes open fur enuf to see that all was brot abaout by not getting the right men into orfis.

Looking online, I think that there was a move afoot to attempt to either purchase or seize Cuba from Spain for the United States. Mathew was a life-long opponent of U.S. imperialism, as one also sees in his "Ensign Stebbings"* satires written for the "Carpet-Bag" the previous year. (That series was erroneously attributed to Benjamin Drew, by none other than B.P. Shillaber, the "Carpet-Bag's" editor.) Spike typically feels very sorry for himself, while he is acting selfishly--a sort of "Gollum" character. As he had done in-character as the "Ensign," here Mathew doesn't fail to poke fun at the "Maderwasky War." This is a reference to the Aroostock War, which tells us it was a "bloodless dispute that lasted from 1838 to 1839, leading to the Webster-Ashburton negotations." Mathew also lampooned the Mexican-American War in the liberal Boston "Chronotype," as "Ethan Spike" and other characters. "Spike," of course, uses the term "nigger," while Mathew would never have done so. Here again, we see the "great perladyum of hewman rites." All three words are deliberately misspelled. In "Spike's" world, his principles, which he would call "human rights," are in fact rituals (i.e., "rites") which tear men apart. We also see the word "subloonary," or sublunary, which is one of Mathew's favorites, and can be used to help identify some of his pieces written under other pseudonyms.

Prehaps the government thinks that the caounty of Oxford is satisfied with the apintments. Wal, prehaps it ar. But just let 'um declare war agin Kuby, Kannerdy, or Kallerforny an' send here arter recruits, an' they'd find that them apintments an the licker law together has made patryotism a scarce article in these parts. Hawoseoever, it's never too late to do good, an prehaps, ef I was apinted even naow to some snug place--prehaps, I say, I might look at the whole subject in a different pint of view.--There's no knowin'--I should'nt wonder a might.

Mathew is again making fun of U.S. imperialism--and pointing out that California was stolen from Mexico. "Spike" was, of course, against the Maine Liquor Law--but so was Mathew, for different reasons. Mathew, a Temperance man at this stage of his life, was not in favor of government prohibition of alcohol. "Spike," among his other unlovely character traits, is a hypocrite. He threatens with the right hand, and beggs with the left. In short, philosophically, "Ethan Spike" is every man's ego, that "little self" which causes so much suffering. All of Mathew's stories are teaching stories, which talent he appears to have brought forward from a past life as a rabbi.

Seth wants to know haow abaout sellin' the rale-road to the brittish. He owns a shear--Seth does--an' he says haow ef its paid in brittish goold he should't darst touch it, cos they've allers been trying to sarcumvent us by means on't, an for his pat he's not goin' to be catched with it. But arter all his talk, I haint any doubt that ef the old harry wanted him and would bait his trap with a suvrin--he'd ketch the old feller afore bed time. Why, sliver his old picter, he's workin' me eenjest to death at four-an'-six a day, an' half starvin' me at that. I should like to -----------. But I'm getting riled an shall get to be parsonal bumby, so I'll haul up till next time.

    Diskonsertly, Yours,
      Ethan Spike.

I'm unaware of any plan to sell railroads to the Brittish. Mathew, however, appears to have owned railroad stock, because it comes up in his travelogues written for the Boston "Weekly Museum" as "Quails," in a thinly-disguised personal account of buying the wrong stock for someone, in Boston.

P.S.--Please send me all the back numbers of the "Genius;" the poetikul works of Withington, an' any papers that has the latest furrin news, an' local axidents, as I'm gettin up a work on perlitikal economy an' general afferdavys, an' they'll be handy for refferences. S.

Mathew briefly ridicules a publication called "The Genius" in another "Ethan Spike" installment, in 1855, where he announces the editor will give a talk on "Baby Shows." Baby shows were awful public displays of--you guessed it--babys, sponsored at least in part by none other than P.T. Barnum. Elsewhere, Mathew describes attending one at which all the babies were crying, as he public gawked at them.

I find the "Genius of Liberty," a feminist newspaper out of Cincinnati. At first glance I'd think he would have approved of it, but perhaps he was reacting negatively to its militant feminism. His beloved first wife, Abby, was a sort of "natural feminist," in the sense of being intelligent and independent--they were equals in that relationship, though I think she deferred ultimately to his decisions (to his detriment). But Mathew may have thought this publication was over-the-top, and decided it would be a funny request for "Spike" to be making. Even this explanation doesn't entirely satisfy me--he must have seen something hypocritical in it. (I don't know the editor's stance on baby shows, and so can't comment on that.) Genius, itself, was a subject of great interest to Mathew; and I'm certain that a casual or ignorant treatment of it would naturally annoy him, while amusing him with its irony. Mathew lampooned a self-righteous feminist** toward the very end of the Boston "Weekly Museum's" run, in mid-1852, adopting the persona of one "Sally Sage"; while simultaneously taking the opportunity to mercilessly ridicule the late Margaret Fuller, at the same time. Fuller, a literary prima donna (and friend of Edgar Allan Poe), had claimed Mathew's star-signed reviews and essays in the 1844-46 New York "Tribune." Fuller was made the official literary editor by editor-in-chief Horace Greeley (who was putting her up at his house at the urging of his wife, a fan of Fuller's).

I'm not familiar with "Withington," but his poetry must have been awful, because this is undoubtedly also a back-handed compliment. The reference to "local axidents" is a dig at the press--including the "Transcript"--for building their subscriptions by reporting sensational news of people's misfortune. While the idea of "Ethan Spike" working on a report of some kind is ludicrous, Mathew, himself, may be working on something. For example, I found an anonymous anti-slavery booklet, published in Boston in 1856, entitled "A Plain Statement Addressed to All Honest Democrats by One of the People," which I believe was written by Mathew. Here, I'll post it for anyone interested. Intuitive past-life recognition memory fairly screamed at me that I (i.e., as Mathew) had written this, but there are scarce clues, in this instance, to go on. It seems to me I found one, and one only, in the text, but I'd have to go back into my first book to search for it...

Yes, here it is. The author inserts the colloquialism, in quotes, "go it blind," which Mathew has done elsewhere--as "Ethan Spike," in fact, in the Nov. 6, 1852 edition of the "Carpet-Bag":

6th. Resolved that it is the cents of this meetin to go it blind--naow, henceforth an forevermore--selah--for Insine Jehiel Stebbings of Spunkville for president of these ere suvrin States--Amen!

He simply cannot be serious through an entire 57 pages; and in this, he reveals himself to me, if to no-one else.

I found "Withington." Mathew would have been referring to an earlier work, but this is "Modern Ideas in Prose and Poetry, dictated by the True Spirit, with a Short Biographical Sketch of the Author," published the following year by William Withington. He seems well-intentioned--he tells us he champions Temperance and Spiritual Communication, while opposing Popery and Slavery. But his poetry is, indeed, truly awful. He says, by way of introduction: "A few pieces written in Portland in July, while on a visit to see my children and friends, which may be interesting to some of my patrons, on each sabbath in the month of July." And he begins:

This morning, I am here in Maine,
 In Portland where I have lived before,
The holy sabbath once again—
 It has commencd with us once more.

This is the second of July,
 In eighteen hundred fifty-four--
This is the day as often I
 Have said, we never had before.

Mathew, at this time, is a Spiritualist and active in that movement. Withington has told us he is also a supporter, and he begins by telling us:

Will the spirits now dictate me,
 While I am writing sabbath noon;
For the benefit of people
 That I address this afternoon.

But then, he sounds more like one Rev. Dwight, the establishment pastor with whom Mathew will later cross swords, whose chief argument against Spiitualism was that God doesn't want us to know these things:

The spirits now are all around us,
 In this city where you dwell;
But remember I have told you,
 There are places worse than hell.

Now I warn this congregation,
 For to leave those places, then;
And while we live in this nation,
 To be good know-nothing men.

Mathew could express no lower opinion of a poet than to have "Ethan Spike" request his work for further study!

This, actually, is not Mathew's best work as "Ethan Spike." I simply chose it because it was a new discovery--and my overarching theme, in continuing this blog, is precisely new discoveries. But it serves well as an example. Again, this is my baseline, my anchor, in evaluating all of Mathew's work, because it is his one historically-known and agreed-upon pseudonym. There is another I have identified which I can prove 100%--"Poins," in the "Transcript" of the early 1840's. Several other pseudonyms are almost as solidly proven for his pen--the "star," or single asterisk, among them. In my digital archives, for each publication I have a category of "possible MFW," where I have placed those pieces I'm unsure about. I don't count these in the figure of "over 1,500" which I am citing, these days. Ironically, I would have to say that my proof of Mathew's authorship of "The Raven" is as solid as my evidence for his authorship of the "star"--and that's a done deal, at about "99.9 percent." I'm careful with these attributions. I don't want to be wrong about any more of them than absolutely necessary. Especially because I'm not sure I'm going to be around, by the time scholars start challenging my work. That's another reason my books are so long. I have to try to ferret out all the evidence before anyone else gets to it. I don't want some skeptical scholar finding something that seemingly disproves Mathew's authorship of a disputed work, without my having had the opportunity to examine it and comment on it. So I tried to beat them all to the punch, as much as possible.

I don't remember how many "Ethan Spike" sketches I have, now. His biographer was aware of 63, as I recall. I think I have more like 150 (27 of which are reproduced fully in the appendix of my first book). The other 1,350+ published works that I claim for Mathew, can be assessed against them for style, subjects and viewpoint.

Best regards,

Stephen Sakellarios, M.S.

*Mathew typically wrote it as "Insine Stebbings," which is one way you can discern his writing from the other contributors to the "Carpet-Bag" who subsequently jumped on the bandwagon in the "Carpet-Bag."

**Mathew wrote favorably of Lucy Stone (adding a humorous caveat, that many women in the audience may have discovered they had complaints which had never occurred to them), and Amelia Bloomer (who pioneered slacks for women)--it depended on whether female advocates for women's rights were reasonable and sincere, or fanatical and egotistical.

 

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